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    References for SACO, and citations for sources used on this site


Narrations and notes by Wilber Elsworth Smith (Smitty), Storekeeper First Class (Disbursing), US Navy, service in CBI 1945-1946.

Asprey, Robert B. War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla History
Doubleday & Company, Inc., New York, 1975, Volumes I and II.

Bagby, Wesley Marvin. The Eagle-Dragon Alliance: America's Relations with China in World War II
Associated UP, Cranbury, NJ, 1992.

Barton, Charles, Capt. USN (Ret). The Rice Paddy Navy
The Retired Officer, January 1989.

Caldwell, Oliver J. A Secret War: Americans in China 1944-1945
Southern Illinois University Press, 1972, 173 pages.
Personal record of experiences with the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in China in the 1944-45 period 218 pages.

Dulles, Foster Rhea. American Policy toward Communist China: The Historical Record, 1949-1969
Crowell, New York, 1972, 173 pages.
View of American policy toward China between 1949 and 1969, and Sino-American drama between 1953 and 1968.

Garver, John W.. The Sino-American Alliance
Nationalist China and American Cold War Strategy in Asia
Armonk, NY and London, ISBN 0-7656-0025-0(1997)
US policy and relationships with Nationalist China (Taiwan) and effects on PRC in 1950s and 60s.

Gladwin, Lee A. Diplomacy sf Security: Behind the Negotiations of Article 18 of the Sino-American Cooperative Agreement
The Cryptologia, 2000.

Glist, Lou. China Mailbag UNCENSORED
Emerald Ink Publishing, Houston, 2000.
Letters, cartoons and sketches of rural China during WWII.

Horton, John Ryder. Ninety-Day Wonder: Flight to Guerrilla War
New York: Ivy Books, 1994.
Ensign Horton's accounts of US support in China's desperate struggle with occupying Japan while on the brink of civil war.

Leu, Del. Pages of website introducing his father Donald Leu's service in SACO.

Marshall, Jonathan. Opium and the Politics of Gangsterism in Nationalist China, 1927-1945
Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Vol. 8, 1976.

Miles, Milton E., manuscript Daniel, Hawthorne. A Different Kind of War: The Little-known Story of the Combined Guerrilla Forces Created in China by the U.S. Navy and the Chinese During World War II
Doubleday, 1967.
Written by the U.S. commander of SACO forces in China, it describes the fascinating history of SACO and contains numerous photos. This well-written book is out of print, but you can usually find used copies of it at or amazon or even ebay.

Mishler, Clayton. Sampan Sailor: A Navy Man's Adventures in WWII China
Brassey's, Maxwell Macmillan Company, ISBN 0-02-881073-2(1994)
Personal portrait of a young sailor's exploits helping the Chinese resist the Japanese invaders in Southern China.

Morrison, Samuel Eliot. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II
Vol XIII, The Liberation of the Philippines

Routledge. Intelligence & National Security
Taylor & Francis Group,Volume 16, Number 4, December 2001.

Schaller, Michael. The U.S. Crusade in China, 1938-1945
Columbia University Press, 1979.

Schaller, Michael. SACO! The United States Navy's Secret War in China, 1938-1945
Pacific Historical Review 44, no.4 (November 1975): 527-553.

Shen, Yu. SACO re-examined: Sino-American intelligence cooperation during World War II
Indiana University Southeast
The history of SACO as a wartime institution during the war and its politicized legacy through the Cold War era.

Shen, Yu. SACO Reexamined: Sino-American Intelligence Cooperation during World War II.
Paper presented at the Association of Asian Studies Meeting, San Diego, March 11, 2000.

Shen, Yu. SACO in History and Histories: Politics and Memory
Paper delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies, Washington, D. C., April 9, 1995.

Stratton, Roy. The Rice Paddy Navy
This book chronicles the guerilla tactics of an organization whose activities extended from the borders of the Gobi Desert to French Indochina and from the Himalayan Mountains in Western Yunaan to China’s Pacific seaboard, in front of and behind enemy lines.
C.S.Palmer Publishing Co., 1950.
Available from -

Thorne, Bliss K. The Hump
The Great Himalayan Airlift of World War II
J.B. Lippincott Company, 1965.

Tuchman, Barbara W. Stillwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-1945
The Macmillan Company, 1970.

Wakeman Jr, Frederic. Spymaster - Dai Li and the Chinese Secret Service
University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 2003
ISBN: 0520234073 and online at

Wheal, Pope and Taylor. The Meridian Encyclopedia of the Second World War
Meridian, 1992.

Yu, Maochun. OSS in China: Prelude to Cold War
New Haven, Yale University Press, 1997, 340 pages.

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